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Male sex hormones: John Hopkins researchers found that sex hormones can control mammary gland nerves to sense the amount of milk in breast milk ducts. The difference between male and female despite the physical structure is their sex hormones as well. These nerve cells are present in both sexes in early development stages but in males after embryonic development and increasing in male hormones (like testosterone), these nerves are lost or do not follow the signals was telling them to do so. This mechanism which was identified in mice could describe other sex-specific variations in nerve networks.


Block HIV: A study on HIV (AIDS) in non-human primate model published in high impact factor Journal “Plos Pathogen” succeeded to produce a kind of microbicide gel for intra-vaginally usage to block and prevent the spread of HIV as a promising strategy for the prevention and protection against HIV transmission even from the first step of sexual intercourse.


Toxoplasmosis and depression: The Toxoplasma gondii parasite which causes toxoplasmosis with mild flu-like symptoms in start is common infection especially in animals particularly in cats. It can be transferred to human by eating poorly cooked (infected) meat and handling cat feces. Therefore, pregnant women are recommended to avoid contact with cat litter boxes. It may stay in dormant phase for a long time but when the immune system is weakened, toxoplasmosis moves to the brain and causes the secretion of a neurotransmitter (GABA) which can be fatal or in a positive view it my cause schizophrenia, anxiety and depression, which are broad public health concerns. So, it is worthwhile studying on this infection and its infection pathway.


Kill switch: For some diseases the reason of death or severity of disease is not the infection agent itself, but is the body immune response. For some people suffering from sepsis or chemotherapy after getting cancer, the immune system invades the blood cells and the patient is unable to repopulate these red and white cells which cause to death. Scientists are optimistic and searching for some effective inhibitors for “kill switch” of immune system to control these kinds of illnesses.


Triple-negative breast cancers: 10-20% of breast cancers which are triple-negative factors (estrogen, progestron and HER2 negative), fast growing in younger women and African-American women, are too tough to standard treatments. A combination treatment of brostallicin and cisplatin drugs has shown promising activity in pretreated metastatic triple-negative breast cancer patients.



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