4 main category of biotechnology
The application of biotechnology in the field of medicine and pharmaceutical covers a broad aspect of subjects such as innovation for molecular diagnostic of diseases mechanisms and opening a new chapter so called molecular medicine, the possibility of disease diagnosis before and after birth, gene therapy, designing new drugs and recombinant vaccines, developing diagnostic kits, producing manipulated microorganisms for specific applications, producing monoclonal antibodies, etc.
Green biotechnology – is about agricultural processes that use biotechnology. Eg. The development of transgenic plants, need for pesticides remove etc.
Increasing the world population and enhancing food demand in recent decades caused a serious and inevitable jumping from traditional to modern agriculture and using novel biotechnology techniques to produce a good supply of plant and animal products. As it is clear, plants are the main and the most important renewable resources in the world which not only support the food for human and animal, but also cover the other innutritious needs such as chemical and industrial demands. For this purpose, the application of genetic engineering and biotechnology has been valuable tool to increase the quality and quantity of products as well as decreasing the time and cost.
This field covers the industrial applications of this technology. A good example for this, is designing an organism to produce a useful and applicable chemical substance. Another example is about using enzymes as industrial catalysts. Generally this field has been started to produce materials with higher applications match with environment.
Marine biotechnology is a growing field which uses fish, algae or bacteria directly or indirectly. The most important usages of marine biotechnology are:
Producing new and improved products, producing new techniques to direct, evaluate, save and management of sea ecosystems and improving the aquaculture stably.
The other category for this technology branches would be based on the progresses on this technology. For example, tissue engineering means to control a tissue production or providing proper condition to produce that tissue. Protein engineering purpose is modification of the proteins to provide better usage possibility of them. Genetic engineering is based on the production of recombinant DNA using gene cloning. Gene cloning led to swift and applicable methods for DNA sequencing. The application of gene cloning is beyond DNA sequencing. Using this technique the researchers could study the gene regulation and understand the effect of irregular gene regulation on some diseases especially the cancers. These techniques have also a broad application in mass production of specific proteins such as insulin which are very important products in medicine and industry
Today, the progress in technology and scientific outcomes, regardless of the geographical situation of the countries, has granted new categories. Indeed, science and technology has brought the developed and industrial countries together. Amongst them, biotechnology as one of the seven key technologies of the century has found a special position for the progress and development of human needs and supporting economical, hygienic and food safety of the world.
Specific categories and applications:
Agriculture biotech: (green)
Animal biotech: (red)
Animal cell biotech: (red)
Environmental biotech: (green, blue)
Food and enzyme biotech: (Red, green, white, blue)
Forest biotech: (green)
Industrial biotech: (white)
Marine (aquatic) biotech: (blue)
Medical biotech: (red)
Microbial biotech: (Red, green, white, blue)
Molecular biotech: (Red, green, white, blue)
Nano biotech: (Red, green, white, blue)
Plant biotech: (green)